Ganesha Tattoo Meaning

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Ganesha tattoos have grown increasingly popular in recent years, both among those who follow Hinduism and those who are drawn to the intricate designs and rich symbolism associated with this revered deity. In this article I dive deep into the various meanings and implications of Ganesha tattoos, shedding light on the cultural, historical, and religious contexts in which they are embedded.

By understanding the symbolism behind Ganesha tattoos, you can make more informed decisions about whether and how to incorporate this powerful figure into their body art, ensuring that their tattoos hold deep personal significance and resonate with their values and beliefs.

Black and Gray Ganesha Tattoo on Upper Arm (Photo by Ben Lucas / CC BY)
Black and Gray Ganesha Tattoo on Upper Arm (Photo by Ben Lucas / CC BY)

Historical Context of Ganesha

Origin of Ganesha

Hindu Mythology

Hindu mythology is a vast and complex collection of stories, epics, and sacred texts that form the foundation of Hinduism, one of the world’s oldest and most widespread religions. These myths are primarily derived from ancient Vedic texts and regional folktales, encompassing a wide range of themes and subjects, including the creation of the universe, the nature of the divine, the workings of karma, and the pursuit of spiritual enlightenment.

Hinduism features a rich and diverse pantheon of gods and goddesses, each representing various aspects of existence and embodying specific attributes, powers, and qualities. By understanding and engaging with these myths, practitioners of Hinduism gain insights into the human experience, the nature of the divine, and the path to spiritual growth and liberation.

Ganesha’s Creation Story

The creation story of Ganesha, one of the most beloved and widely recognized deities in Hinduism, is both fascinating and symbolic. According to the myth, Ganesha was created by the goddess Parvati to serve as a guardian while she bathed. She formed him from the turmeric paste she used to cleanse her body, and after breathing life into him, she instructed him to stand guard outside her chamber.

When her husband, Lord Shiva, returned and tried to enter the chamber, Ganesha refused to let him pass, unaware of Shiva’s identity. In a fit of anger, Shiva beheaded Ganesha, much to Parvati’s distress.

To placate his grieving wife, Shiva promised to revive Ganesha and give him the head of the first creature he encountered, which happened to be an elephant.

The story of Ganesha’s creation thus serves as a testament to his unwavering loyalty and devotion, as well as an illustration of his unique appearance and divine origins.

A Roundel of Ganesha, the Elephant Headed God of Wisdom, Literature and Success, Along With His Vehicle, the Rat, 11th Century (Photo by Wellcome Library / CC BY)
A Roundel of Ganesha, the Elephant Headed God of Wisdom, Literature and Success, Along With His Vehicle, the Rat, 11th Century (Photo by Wellcome Library / CC BY)

Ganesha’s Significance in Hinduism

Ganesha holds a central and multifaceted role in Hinduism, revered as a remover of obstacles, the lord of beginnings, and the patron of arts and sciences. As the son of Shiva and Parvati, Ganesha occupies a unique position in the Hindu pantheon, embodying both the power of destruction (through Shiva) and the nurturing qualities of creation and renewal (through Parvati).

Ganesha is invoked at the outset of new ventures and endeavors, as well as during religious ceremonies, to ensure success and smooth progress.

Additionally, Ganesha is associated with wisdom, intellect, and learning, making him a popular figure among students and scholars. The diverse array of attributes and qualities attributed to Ganesha make him a versatile and powerful symbol in Hinduism, and his distinctive appearance and rich mythological background have contributed to his enduring popularity in various forms of art, including Ganesha tattoos.

Evolution of Ganesha’s Representation

Early Depictions

In the early stages of Hindu art, Ganesha was portrayed in a more anthropomorphic form, with a human body and an elephant head. These early depictions often emphasized his unique physical characteristics, focusing on the elephantine head and trunk, while maintaining a more human-like figure for the rest of his body.

These portrayals often included Ganesha with two arms, which was a more common representation for gods and goddesses in the early period of Hindu art. As Ganesha’s popularity and significance grew within Hinduism, so did the complexity and detail of his artistic portrayals, with more elaborate iconography emerging over time.

6th Century Panel Shows the Son of Parvati and Shiva – Ganesha With a Bowl of Ladoos (Sweets) (Photo by Ms Sarah Welch / CC BY)
6th Century Panel Shows the Son of Parvati and Shiva – Ganesha With a Bowl of Ladoos (Sweets) (Photo by Ms Sarah Welch / CC BY)

Changes Over Time

As the representation of Ganesha in art and iconography evolved, several key changes emerged, reflecting the deity’s growing importance and the expansion of his symbolism within Hinduism.

One of the most noticeable changes was the transition from a two-armed figure to a multi-armed deity, often depicted with four, eight, or even more arms. Each arm typically holds a different attribute or item, symbolizing various aspects of Ganesha’s powers and qualities. These attributes can include an axe, a noose, a lotus flower, and his own broken tusk, among others.

Additionally, Ganesha’s seated position became more prevalent in later representations, often with one leg tucked beneath him and the other resting on the ground. This change in posture is thought to represent a balance between the material and spiritual realms, emphasizing Ganesha’s role as a mediator between the two.

Regional Variations

As Hinduism spread across the Indian subcontinent and beyond, regional variations in the depiction of Ganesha emerged, reflecting local artistic styles, cultural influences, and religious interpretations.

For instance, in some areas of South India, Ganesha is often portrayed with a third eye, similar to his father Shiva, emphasizing his divine origins and powers of perception.

In other regions, Ganesha may be shown with a serpent wrapped around his stomach or draped over his shoulders, symbolizing his control over primal energies and desires.

 Hindus in Ghana celebrating Ganesh Chaturti (Photo by Banksboomer / CC BY)
Hindus in Ghana celebrating Ganesh Chaturti (Photo by Banksboomer / CC BY)

In Southeast Asia, particularly in countries like Cambodia and Indonesia, Ganesha’s representation often exhibits local artistic styles and motifs, such as the incorporation of more intricate ornamentation and elaborate headdresses.

These regional variations in Ganesha’s depiction serve to enrich and diversify the iconography associated with this beloved deity, offering a wealth of inspiration and possibilities for those seeking to incorporate something unique into their Ganesha tattoos.

Symbolism of Ganesha

Ganesha as the Remover of Obstacles

Examples of Obstacles Ganesha Helps Overcome

As the remover of obstacles, Ganesha is invoked by devotees seeking assistance in overcoming various challenges and barriers in their lives. These obstacles can range from personal issues, such as difficulties in relationships, struggles with self-confidence, or overcoming negative habits, to more practical concerns, like starting a new business, pursuing an education, or embarking on a significant life change.

Ganesha Tattoo on Ribs (Photo by Lorenzo Tlacaelel / CC BY)
Ganesha Tattoo on Ribs (Photo by Lorenzo Tlacaelel / CC BY)

Ganesha is also called upon during religious ceremonies and rituals to ensure their smooth progression and to remove any potential hindrances. By invoking Ganesha’s divine intervention, devotees believe that they can find the strength, wisdom, and perseverance to surmount the challenges they face and achieve success in their endeavors.

The Symbolism of the Broken Tusk

One of the most recognizable features of Ganesha’s iconography is his broken tusk, which holds significant symbolic meaning in Hinduism. The broken tusk is often interpreted as a representation of Ganesha’s unwavering dedication to his duties and responsibilities, as well as his ability to overcome obstacles and adapt to challenging situations.

Durga Puja in Koln (Cologne), Germany. Murti of Lord Ganesha (Photo by Wiki-uk / CC BY)
Durga Puja in Koln (Cologne), Germany. Murti of Lord Ganesha (Photo by Wiki-uk / CC BY)

According to one popular story, Ganesha broke his own tusk to use as a writing implement when he was tasked with transcribing the epic poem, the Mahabharata, as the sage Vyasa recited it. This act demonstrated Ganesha’s commitment to knowledge and wisdom, as well as his willingness to make personal sacrifices in pursuit of a greater goal.

The single tusk also serves as a reminder that even deities are not perfect, and that it is through our imperfections and challenges that we can grow, learn, and ultimately achieve our full potential.

Ganesha as the Lord of Beginnings

Significance of Ganesha in Rituals

By invoking Ganesha’s presence, participants hope to ensure that any potential hindrances or complications are removed, allowing them to focus on the spiritual aspects of the ritual and connect more deeply with the divine. In many Hindu households, a statue or image of Ganesha is prominently displayed, serving as a constant reminder of his protective and guiding presence, as well as a focal point for daily prayers and offerings.

Ganesha’s Association with the Arts and Sciences

Ganesha’s strong connection with the arts and sciences stems from his role as a symbol of wisdom, knowledge, and learning. As the patron of these disciplines, Ganesha is believed to inspire creativity, innovation, and intellectual curiosity, guiding individuals in their pursuit of knowledge and personal growth.

Many students and scholars turn to Ganesha for support and encouragement as they navigate the challenges and opportunities presented by their academic and artistic endeavors.

Furthermore, Ganesha’s own story of using his broken tusk to transcribe the Mahabharata highlights his dedication to the pursuit of knowledge and his willingness to make personal sacrifices for the greater good. This association with the arts and sciences has contributed to Ganesha’s enduring popularity and relevance, both as a revered deity within Hinduism and as a powerful symbol of wisdom and creativity for individuals from diverse backgrounds and beliefs.

Ganesha’s Iconography

Elephant Head

The elephant head is one of the most distinctive features of Ganesha’s iconography, setting him apart from other deities in the Hindu pantheon. The elephant head symbolizes wisdom, intelligence, and strength, qualities that are attributed to elephants in Indian culture.

The large ears of the elephant represent the ability to listen carefully and discern truth from falsehood, while the trunk signifies adaptability and resourcefulness, as it can be used for both delicate tasks and powerful actions.

Ganesha Head Tattoo on Lower Leg (Photo by Nick Gray / CC BY)
Ganesha Head Tattoo on Lower Leg (Photo by Nick Gray / CC BY)

Multiple Arms

The multiple arms of Ganesha, often depicted with four or more, are symbolic of his divine nature and his ability to multitask and overcome obstacles. Each arm typically holds a different object or performs a specific gesture, representing the various aspects of Ganesha’s powers and attributes.

The multitude of arms can also be seen as a metaphor for the diverse skills and talents that individuals possess, emphasizing the importance of harnessing these abilities to achieve personal and spiritual growth.

Seated Position

The seated position of Ganesha in many depictions is representative of his role as a mediator between the material and spiritual realms. The posture, with one leg tucked beneath him and the other resting on the ground, symbolizes a balance between action and contemplation, grounding and transcendence.

This seated posture invites devotees to cultivate inner stillness and focus, qualities that are essential for overcoming obstacles and achieving spiritual progress.

Ganesha in the Indian Museum, Kolkata - Scultpure From Java, 8th/9th Century AD (Photo by Kritzolina / CC BY)
Ganesha in the Indian Museum, Kolkata – Scultpure From Java, 8th/9th Century AD (Photo by Kritzolina / CC BY)

Attributes Held in Each Hand

The various attributes held by Ganesha in his multiple hands convey different aspects of his divine nature and abilities.

Common objects include the axe, symbolizing the cutting away of ignorance and attachment; the noose, representing the ability to bind and control obstacles; the lotus flower, denoting purity and spiritual awakening; and his own broken tusk, signifying sacrifice and resilience.

Modak (Sweet Dumpling)

The modak, a sweet dumpling often associated with Ganesha, is symbolic of the sweetness of spiritual knowledge and the rewards of devotion.

Ganesha is commonly depicted holding a modak or with a bowl of modaks nearby, emphasizing his love for this delicacy.

Modak Indian Sweet Dumpling (Photo by Dr. Raju Kasambe / CC BY)
Modak Indian Sweet Dumpling (Photo by Dr. Raju Kasambe / CC BY)

This association also reflects the importance of nourishing the soul with wisdom and spiritual sustenance, as well as the joy and fulfillment that can be derived from a deep connection with the divine.

Vehicle: Mouse

Ganesha’s vehicle, the mouse or ‘Mushika,’ is another intriguing aspect of his iconography. The mouse represents humility, resourcefulness, and the ability to navigate through difficult situations with ease.

The juxtaposition of the large, powerful elephant-headed deity riding atop a small, agile mouse illustrates the balance between strength and subtlety, demonstrating that both qualities are necessary for overcoming obstacles and achieving success.

Additionally, the mouse’s association with Ganesha serves as a reminder that even the smallest and seemingly insignificant creatures can possess remarkable wisdom and abilities.

Tattoo Designs and Styles

Traditional Ganesha Tattoos

Classic Style

The classic style of Ganesha tattoos often draws inspiration from traditional Indian art and iconography, featuring intricate patterns, bold lines, and rich details. This style aims to capture the essence of Ganesha’s divine nature, while paying homage to the cultural and historical roots of the deity’s imagery.

Traditional Style Ganesha
Traditional Style Ganesha

In the classic style, Ganesha is usually depicted with his characteristic elephant head, multiple arms, and seated posture, adorned with traditional ornaments and accompanied by his symbolic attributes. The use of shading, color, and intricate line work helps bring the tattoo to life, creating a visually striking and meaningful design.

The classic style of Ganesha tattoos is popular among devotees of Hinduism, as well as individuals who appreciate the beauty and symbolism of the deity’s representation in traditional Indian art.

Religious Symbolism

Incorporating religious symbolism in a Ganesha tattoo design can add depth and personal significance to the design, while also serving as a constant reminder of the spiritual principles and values associated with the deity.

These symbols, which I discuss in detail below, can be integrated into the overall design of the tattoo, either as standalone elements or as part of a larger, more elaborate composition.

Ganesha in Nepal (Photo by VeraVidiVici / CC BY)
Ganesha in Nepal (Photo by VeraVidiVici / CC BY)

When choosing to include religious symbolism in a Ganesha tattoo design, it is essential to understand and respect the meaning and cultural significance of the symbols to ensure that the design is both aesthetically pleasing and spiritually meaningful.

Common Placements

The placement of a Ganesha tattoo can vary depending on personal preference, the size of the design, and the desired level of visibility.

Some popular placements for Ganesha tattoos include the upper arm, forearm, back, and shoulder, as these areas provide ample space for a large or medium sized design that can be detailed and intricate designs.

Smaller tattoos can also be placed on the wrist, ankle, or behind the ear, for a more subtle and discreet display.

When choosing the placement for a Ganesha tattoo, it is essential to consider factors such as personal comfort, potential impact on professional or social situations, and the desired visibility of the design.

Additionally, it is crucial to consult with a skilled and experienced tattoo artist, who can provide guidance on the best placement and size for the chosen design, as well as ensure that the tattoo is executed with precision and care.

Modern Ganesha Tattoos

Abstract and Geometric Designs

Abstract and geometric designs offer a unique and contemporary approach to Ganesha tattoos, allowing for creative reinterpretation and personal expression.

These designs often focus on specific elements or aspects of Ganesha’s iconography, such as the elephant head, trunk, or attributes, and reconfigure them using abstract shapes, lines, and patterns.

Geometric designs, in particular, can incorporate various forms like mandalas, sacred geometry, or intricate patterns, resulting in visually captivating and symbolic compositions.

Abstract Ganesha Design
Abstract Ganesha Design

Abstract and geometric Ganesha tattoos can be an excellent choice for individuals seeking a modern and distinctive take on the traditional imagery, while still maintaining a connection to the underlying symbolism and spiritual significance of the deity.

Minimalist and Linework Tattoos

Minimalist and linework tattoos offer a subtle and understated approach to Ganesha designs, focusing on simplicity, elegance, and precision.

These tattoos often feature clean lines, limited shading, and a reduced level of detail, resulting in a more streamlined and minimalist representation of the deity.

Minimalist Ganesha tattoos can be particularly appealing to those who prefer a less ornate and more discreet design, or who wish to incorporate the symbolism of Ganesha into a smaller or more inconspicuous tattoo.

Minimalist Ganesha Design
Minimalist Ganesha Design

Linework tattoos, on the other hand, can provide a delicate and refined interpretation of Ganesha’s features, utilizing intricate lines and patterns to create a visually appealing and balanced composition.

Both minimalist and linework Ganesha tattoos offer a fresh and modern perspective on the traditional imagery, while still maintaining a sense of reverence and respect for the deity’s symbolism and significance.

Watercolor and Sketch Style Tattoos

Watercolor and sketch style tattoos provide an artistic and expressive approach to Ganesha designs, showcasing the creativity and individuality of both the tattoo artist and the wearer.

Watercolor tattoos often feature vibrant colors, fluid shapes, and a painterly quality, mimicking the look of watercolor paintings. These designs can add a dynamic and visually striking element to Ganesha tattoos, giving them a sense of movement, energy, and spontaneity.

Ganesha Watercolor Design
Ganesha Watercolor Design

Sketch style tattoos, on the other hand, emulate the appearance of pencil or ink sketches, with loose lines, shading, and an unfinished or rough quality. This style can lend a sense of rawness and authenticity to Ganesha tattoos, capturing the essence of the deity in a more organic and unpolished manner.

Both watercolor and sketch style Ganesha tattoos offer an innovative and imaginative approach to the traditional imagery, allowing for a greater range of artistic expression and personalization.

Ganesha Tattoos Combined with Other Elements

Lotus Flower

The lotus flower is a powerful and widely recognized symbol in the Hindu religion, representing purity, spiritual awakening, and the transcendent nature of the soul.

Often associated with Ganesha and other deities, the lotus flower signifies the ability to rise above the murky waters of material existence and achieve spiritual enlightenment.

Ganesha with Lotus Tattoo on Forearm (Photo by Willow Kaii / CC BY)
Ganesha with Lotus Tattoo on Forearm (Photo by Willow Kaii / CC BY)

In the context of a Ganesha tattoo, incorporating a lotus flower can add an additional layer of symbolism and meaning, emphasizing the transformative potential of the divine and the importance of inner growth.

The lotus flower can be integrated into the overall design of the tattoo, surrounding Ganesha or serving as a base on which he is seated, or it can be featured as a standalone element that complements the primary image.

Om Symbol

The Om symbol is a sacred sound and icon in Hinduism, representing the primordial vibration from which all existence emanates.

It is believed to embody the essence of the universe, symbolizing the interconnectedness of all beings and the divine nature of creation.

Incorporating the Om symbol into a Ganesha tattoo can further enhance the spiritual significance of the design, reinforcing the concept of cosmic unity and the omnipresence of the divine.

The Om symbol can be integrated into the composition of the tattoo in various ways, such as being placed within Ganesha’s trunk or halo, or as a separate element that complements the main image.

Trishul (Trident)

The Trishul, or trident, is a powerful symbol in the Hindu religion, often associated with Lord Shiva, Ganesha’s father.

The trident represents the three fundamental aspects of existence: creation, preservation, and destruction, and serves as a reminder of the cyclical nature of life and the universe.

Ganesha with Trident Tattoo (Photo by cayooo / CC BY)
Ganesha with Trident Tattoo (Photo by cayooo / CC BY)

By incorporating the Trishul into a Ganesha tattoo, the design takes on a deeper meaning, emphasizing the interconnectedness of divine forces and the balance between opposing energies.

The Trishul can be incorporated as a standalone element alongside Ganesha or integrated into the deity’s attributes, further enriching the tattoo’s symbolism.

Mandala Designs

Mandala designs are intricate, geometric patterns that hold significant spiritual meaning in Hindu culture and other religious traditions.

Mandalas symbolize the cosmos, the interconnectedness of all life, and the journey towards self-realization and enlightenment.

Incorporating mandala designs into a Ganesha tattoo can create a visually stunning and spiritually meaningful composition, imbuing the design with an added sense of depth and complexity.

Ganesha with Om and Mandala Design
Ganesha with Om and Mandala Design

Mandalas can be used as a background or framing element for the Ganesha image, or they can be integrated into the deity’s form or attributes, creating a harmonious blend of symbolic elements.

Chakra Symbols

Chakra symbols represent the seven energy centers within the human body, according to Hindu and yogic traditions.

These symbols are associated with specific aspects of physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being and are believed to play a crucial role in the flow of vital energy or “prana” throughout the body.

By incorporating chakra symbols into a Ganesha tattoo, the design takes on a holistic and healing dimension, emphasizing the importance of balance, self-awareness, and inner harmony.

Chakra symbols can be integrated into the tattoo design in various ways, such as adorning Ganesha’s body or forming a pattern that surrounds or complements the main image. This integration of chakra symbols serves as a powerful reminder of the connection between the divine and the individual’s spiritual journey.

Choosing the Right Ganesha Tattoo for You

Understanding the Symbolism

Importance of Respecting the Cultural and Religious Significance

When choosing to get a Ganesha tattoo or any design that incorporates religious or cultural elements, it is crucial to approach the decision with sensitivity and respect for the beliefs and traditions associated with the symbol.

Ganesha holds deep significance for millions of Hindus around the world, and his representation should be treated with reverence and consideration.

Before deciding on a Ganesha tattoo, take the time to research the deity’s history, mythology, and symbolism to ensure a thorough understanding of the various aspects of his significance.

Ganesha with Third Eye (Photo by Kelvyn Skee / CC BY)
Ganesha with Third Eye (Photo by Kelvyn Skee / CC BY)

By taking these steps, you will not only create a meaningful and aesthetically pleasing tattoo but also demonstrate respect for the cultural and religious significance of the symbol.

Aligning the Design with Personal Beliefs and Values

A Ganesha tattoo can be a powerful and personal expression of one’s spiritual journey, beliefs, and values. As such, it is essential to ensure that the chosen design aligns with your personal convictions and resonates with your unique spiritual path.

When selecting the elements and style of your Ganesha tattoo, consider the aspects of the deity’s symbolism that hold the most meaning for you, such as his role as the remover of obstacles, his connection to wisdom and intellect, or his representation of balance and perfect harmony.

Reflect on your own experiences and spiritual growth, and consider how Ganesha’s attributes can serve as a reminder or inspiration for your continued journey.

By aligning the design of your Ganesha tattoo with your personal beliefs and values, you will create a powerful and lasting symbol that not only honors the rich cultural and religious significance of the deity but also serves as a meaningful and inspiring reminder of your own spiritual path.

Ganesha Tattoo on Upper Chest (Photo by osseus / CC BY)
Ganesha Tattoo on Upper Chest (Photo by osseus / CC BY)


Ganesha tattoos offer a deeply symbolic and visually striking way to express one’s spiritual beliefs, values, and personal journey. With a rich history and diverse iconography, there are countless ways to represent Ganesha through various styles and design elements, such as classic depictions, abstract designs, and the integration of symbols like the lotus flower, Om, Trishul, mandalas, and chakra symbols.

When selecting a Ganesha tattoo design, it is essential to approach the decision with respect and sensitivity towards the cultural and religious significance of the deity, as well as to ensure that the design aligns with your personal beliefs and values. By doing so, you will create a meaningful and lasting tribute to Ganesha, honoring the rich traditions and spiritual wisdom associated with this beloved Hindu deity while also celebrating your unique spiritual journey.

FrequentlyAsked Questions

Is it appropriate for someone who is not Hindu to get a Ganesha tattoo?

While Ganesha is a Hindu deity, people of various spiritual backgrounds and beliefs can appreciate and be inspired by his symbolism. However, it is crucial to approach the decision with sensitivity and respect for the religious and cultural significance of the symbol. Educate yourself about Ganesha’s history, mythology, and meaning within the Hindu tradition, and be mindful of how your tattoo may be perceived by others, particularly those who follow Hinduism. If you approach the decision with respect and genuine admiration for the cultural and spiritual aspects of Ganesha, it can be an appropriate and meaningful choice.

Will the color palette of my Ganesha tattoo affect its symbolism or meaning?

The color palette of your Ganesha tattoo will not inherently affect its symbolism or meaning, as the core essence of the tattoo lies in the representation of the deity and the aspects of his symbolism that resonate with you. However, certain colors may hold specific cultural or spiritual significance in the context of Hinduism or Ganesha’s iconography. For example, red is often associated with sensuality and purity, while yellow represents knowledge and learning. You can choose a color palette that aligns with the aspects of Ganesha’s symbolism you wish to emphasize or simply select colors that appeal to your personal aesthetic preferences.

Is there any significance to the direction Ganesha is facing in my tattoo?

In Hinduism, the direction the gods face can hold symbolic meaning based on the principles of Vastu Shastra, an ancient Indian science that deals with architecture, design, and spatial arrangement. Vastu Shastra associates specific deities with particular directions, which are believed to influence the flow of energy and bring balance and harmony to spaces. Traditionally, Ganesha idols placed in homes and temples are often facing the north, east, or northeast direction.

In the case of Ganesha tattoo, there is no strict rule dictating the direction he should face. However, you may consider the placement of the tattoo on your body and the intended orientation of the design when deciding on the direction Ganesha should face. Some people might choose to have Ganesha facing inward, towards the center of their body, as a symbol of introspection and personal growth. Others may opt for an outward-facing Ganesha as a representation of overcoming external obstacles and challenges.

April 25, 2023